Information material for the doctor

Ingredients: coconut oil, clove buds essential oil, Australian sandalwood essential oil, vitamin E (tocopherol acetate).

Despite significant advances in medicine, traditional therapeutic strategies used to treat bacterial or viral diseases are often unsatisfactory and associated with numerous side effects.
Therefore, a renewed interest in plant-derived substances is currently observed as potential, promising therapies in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including infectious ones. Terpenes and their derivatives are a huge group of natural organic compounds included in essential oils. They are widespread in the plant kingdom. Numerous studies confirm that essential oils and their terpene components show a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities in vitro. They have been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity. In addition, they exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and stimulate the immune system. The wide range of biological properties of essential oils means that they can constitute a new group of therapeutic substances.

Scientific information about the components of the medical product Mollusan® Med.

Clove essential oil

Clove essential oil contains eugenol, isoeugenol and also isomeric sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.

Clove oil has numerous health-promoting properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect [1] [2].

It is believed that the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of the essential oil begins with the destruction of the cell wall and membrane (by means of modification of their biochemical structure), which leads to damage of intracellular organelles and cell death. The essential oil also penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane, inhibiting the natural synthesis of DNA and cell growth proteins [3]. It is also believed that eugenol affects the transport of ions and ATP molecules, the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the action of certain bacterial enzymes, and also increases non-specific cell membrane permeability [4].

Clove oil has antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans [5], inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. [6]

Clove oil has antifungal effect against Candida albicans [7, 8], as well as antioxidant properties. [10]

Applied topically, it has been proven effective in the treatment of chronic pruritus [17]

Australian sandalwood oil (Santalum Spicatum)

Scientific sources refer to the topical use of sandalwood oil in various skin conditions. The oil is used, among others, in the therapy or support of the treatment of molluscum contagiosum, atopic dermatitis, acne or common warts [18, 19, 20, 21]. These indications are mainly based on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity (inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase and production of reactive oxygen species), as well as activity against bacteria and fungi. Alpha-santalol, one of the main ingredients of sandalwood oil, also has anti-inflammatory effects due to modulation of signalling pathways in individual diseases [22].

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been proven against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and Corynebacterial strains, as well as high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus [23]. According to data from the Australian Sandalwood Oil Company, Hammer et al. demonstrated a strong action of sandalwood oil on Candida yeast-like fungi, while Beylier showed that the oil was effective in destroying Staphylococcus aureus [24].

The properties of sandalwood oil have resulted in the appearance of patent claims regarding the use of this material (also in certain formulations) in prevention and treatment of various skin diseases, including molluscum contagiosum, warts, psoriasis, acne, eczema [25, 26, 27].

Coconut oil

Coconut oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the pulp of coconut palm nuts (Cocos nucifera). Coconut oil consists of fatty acids: lauric (49%), myristic (18%), palmitic, caprylic, oleic and other [30].

Scientific papers point to the antimicrobial effect of coconut oil. Ogbolu et al. studied the activity of coconut oil against isolates of Candida species. Coconut oil showed strong antifungal activity. Candida albicans was particularly susceptible to its action. Those results indicate that coconut oil has antifungal activity and can be used in the therapy of diseases caused by Candida, resistant to standard treatments [32]. Numerous scientific sources describe the use of coconut oil for rinsing of the oral cavity. The exact mechanism of the antibacterial effect of coconut oil remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized that monolauric acid and other medium-chain fatty acids have the ability to modify structure of the bacterial cell wall, penetrate and destroy cell membranes, inhibit enzymes involved in production of energy and transfer of nutrients, leading to bacterial cell death [33]. There are also reports of the effectiveness of coconut oil in alleviation of chronic pruritus caused by various factors [34] and of its anti-inflammatory and protective properties against UV radiation [30].

Efficacy of coconut oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, hyperkeratosis of the skin and as an emollient in premature babies has been proven in clinical trials.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effect.

Examples of a clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of sandalwood oil (a component of the Mollusan MED medical device) in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum are given below.

Haque M, Coury DL J Dermatolog Treat. 2018 Aug;29(5):531-533. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1402115. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with an East Indian sandalwood oil product.

The study of the safety and efficacy of soap based on Indian sandalwood oil in the local treatment of molluscum contagiosum. The study group consisted of patients between 22 months and 29 years of age who used the preparation for skin lesions twice a day. Patients were monitored over 2-3-week periods, where both the occurrence of side effects and the effect of the preparation on the affected skin were checked. In 90% of people participating in the study, molluscum infection related symptoms resolved during 12 weeks of treatment. This response was independent of the number and size of skin lesions, length of lesions, age and sex of patients. No side effects have been reported.

Bibliografia:

[1]

A. Kędzia, A. Kusiak, B. Kochańska, A. Kędzia, M. Półjanowska, A. Gębska i M. Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, „Ocena działania przeciwbakteryjnego olejku goździkowego ( Oleum Caryophylli),” Borgis – Postępy Fitoterapii, pp. 2:66-70, 2007.

[2]

A. Kędzia, M. Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Ł. Lassmann, B. Kochańska, A. Kusiak, A. Gębska i A. Wojtaszek-Słomińska, „Przeciwgrzybicze działanie olejku goździkowego,” Borgis – Postępy Fitoterapii , pp. 1:15-18, 2014.

[3]

J. Xu, T. Liu, Q. Hu i X. Cao, „Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus.,” Molecules. , p. 8;21(9), Sep 2016.

[4]

A. Marchese, R. Barbieri, E. Coppo, I. Orhan, M. Daglia, S. Nabavi, M. Izadi, M. Abdollahi, S. Nabavi i M. Ajami, „Antimicrobial activity of eugenol and essential oils containing eugenol: A mechanistic viewpoint.,” Crit Rev Microbiol., pp. 43(6):668-689, Nov 2017.

[5]

L. Chaudhari, B. Jawale, S. Sharma, H. Sharma, C. Kumar i P. Kulkarni, „Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.,” J Contemp Dent Pract. , pp. 1;13(1):71-4, Jan 2012.

[6]

D. Saikumari, S. Shiva Rani i N. Saxena, „Antibacterial Activity of Syzigium aromaticum L. (Clove).,” Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, pp. 5(11): xx-xx, 2016.

[7]

A. Budzyńska, B. Sadowska i M. Więckowska-Szakiel, „Enzymatic profile, adhesive and invasive properties of Candida albicans under the influence of selected plant essential oils.,” Acta Biochimica Polonica, pp. 61(1); 115-121, 2014.

[8]

E. Pinto, L. Vale-Silva, C. Cavaleiro i L. Salgueiro, „Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.,” J Med Microbiol. , pp. 58:1454-62, Nov 2009.

[9]

X. Han i T. Parker, „Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts.,” Pharmaceutical Biology, p. 55(1):1619–1622, 2017.

[10]

M. Ramadan, M. Asker i M. Tadros, „Lipid profile, antiradical power and antimicrobial properties of Syzygium aromaticum oil,” Grasas y Aceites, pp. 64(5):509-520, 2013.

[11]

G. Z. Rudzki E, „Dermatitis from propolis.,” Contact Dermatitis., pp. 9(1):40-5, Jan 1983.

[12]

A. Prashar, I. Locke i C. Evans, „Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.,” Cell Prolif. , pp. 39(4):241-8, Aug 2006.

[13]

Q. Jiang, Y. Wu, H. Zhang, P. Liu, J. Yao, P. Yao, J. Chen i J. Duan, „Development of essential oils as skin permeation enhancers: penetration enhancement effect and mechanism of action,” Pharm Biol. , pp. 55(1):1592-1600, Dec 2017.

[14]

A. Nawaz, Z. Sheikh, M. Feroz, K. Alam, H. Nazar i K. Usmanghani, „Clinical efficacy of polyherbal formulation Eezpain spray for muscular pain relief.,” Pak J Pharm Sci. , pp. 28(1):43-7, Jan 2015.

[15]

H. Elwakeel, H. Moneim, M. Farid i A. Gohar, „Clove oil cream: a new effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.,” Colorectal Dis. , pp. 9(6):549-52, Jul 2007.

[16]

A. Alqareer, A. Alyahya i L. Andersson, „The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics.,” J Dent. , pp. 34(10):747-50, Nov 2006.

[17]

I. Ibrahim, M. Elsaie, A. Almohsen i M. Mohey-Eddin, „Effectiveness of topical clove oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus.,” J Cosmet Dermatol. , pp. 16(4):508-511, Dec 2017.

[18]

K. Shi i P. Lio, „Alternative Treatments for Atopic Dermatitis: An Update.,” Am J Clin Dermatol. 2018 , Dec 2018.

[19]

W. Winkelman, „Aromatherapy, botanicals, and essential oils in acne.,” Clin Dermatol., pp. 299-305, May-Jun 2018.

[20]

M. Haque i D. Coury, „Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with an East Indian sandalwood oil product.,” J Dermatolog Treat., pp. 29(5):531-533, Aug 2018.

[21]

M. Haque i D. Coury, „Topical Sandalwood Oil for Common Warts.,” Clin Pediatr (Phila), pp. 57(1):93-95, Jan 2018.

[22]

A. Bommareddy, S. Brozena, J. Steigerwalt, T. Landis, S. Hughes, E. Mabry, A. Knopp, A. VanWert i C. Dwivedi, „Medicinal properties of alpha-santalol, a naturally occurring constituent of sandalwood oil: review.,” Nat Prod Res. , pp. 13:1-17, Nov 2017.

[23]

J. Morris, A. Khettry i E. Seitz, „Antimicrobial activity of aroma chemicals and essential oils.,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. , pp. 56, 595, 1979.

[24]

E. Hołderna-Kędzia, B. Kędzia i H. Ostrowski-Meissner, „Australijskie olejki eteryczne o działaniu przeciwbakteryjnym i przeciwgrzybiczym,” Borgis – Postępy Fitoterapii , pp. 4:188-194., 2006.

[25]

M. Haque i A. Haque, „Compositions for the prevention and treatment of warts, skin blemishes and other viral-induced tumors.”.US Patent. 1999;5(945):116..

[26]

M. Haque i A. Haque, „Use of alpha- and beta-santalols, major constituents of sandalwood oil, in the treatment of warts, skin blemishes and other viral-induced tumors”.US Patent. 2002;6(406):706..

[27]

Stabilized cream formulations comprising sandalwood oil”.US Patent, 2016.

[28]

P. Palatty, A. Azmidah, S. Rao, D. Jayachander, K. Thilakchand, M. Rai i R. Haniadka, „Topical application of a sandal wood oil and turmeric based cream prevents radiodermatitis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy: a pilot study.,” Br J Radiol. , p. 87(1038):20130490, Jun 2014.

[29]

R. Moy, C. Levenson, J. So i J. Rock, „Single-center, open-label study of a proprietary topical 0.5% salicylic acid-based treatment regimen containing sandalwood oil in adolescents and adults with mild to moderate acne.,” J Drugs Dermatol. , pp. 11(12):1403-8, Dec 2012.

[30]

T. Lin, L. Zhong i J. Santiago, „Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils,” Int. J. Mol. Sci. , pp. 19, 70, 2018.

[31]

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil.,” Sep 2008.

[32]

D. Ogbolu, A. Oni, O. Daini i A. Oloko, „In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.,” J Med Food., pp. 10(2):384-7, Jun 2007.

[33]

J. Nagilla, „Comparative Evaluation of Antiplaque Efficacy of Coconut Oil Pulling and a Placebo, Among Dental College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research , pp. 11(9):ZC08-ZC011, Sep 2017.

[34]

E. Melastuti i D. Setyaningrum, „Effectiveness of providing virgin coconut oil (VCO) towards pruritus reduction: study on patients with chronic kidney diseases undergoing hemodialysis”.

[35]

S. Nangia, V. Paul, A. Deorari, V. Sreenivas, R. Agarwal i D. Chawla, „Topical Oil Application and Trans-Epidermal Water Loss in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants-A Randomized Trial.,” J Trop Pediatr. , pp. 61(6):414-20, Dec 2015.

[36]

R. Salam, G. Darmstadt i Z. Bhutta, „Effect of emollient therapy on clinical outcomes in preterm neonates in Pakistan: a randomised controlled trial.,” Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. , pp. 100(3):F210-5, May 2015.

[37]

A. Agero i V. Verallo-Rowell, „A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.,” Dermatitis. , pp. 15(3):109-16, Sep 2004.

[38]

M. Evangelista, F. Abad-Casintahan i L. Lopez-Villafuerte, „The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.,” Int J Dermatol. , pp. 53(1):100-8, Jan 2014.

[39]

V. Verallo-Rowell, K. Dillague i B. Syah-Tjundawan, „Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.,” Dermatitis. , pp. 19(6):308-15, Nov-Dec 2008.

 

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